The systematic review question is formulated a and tested during the scoping phase. 8. There are many mnemonics available to assist you to formulate a search strategy based on the type of review you are undertaking and the kind of question you are asking. Many potential systematic review authors approach us. A Systematic Review of Systematic Review Process Research in Software Engineering Barbara Kitchenham and Pearl Brereton School of Computing and Mathematics Keele University Staffordshire ST5 5BG {b.a.kitchenham,o.p.brereton}@keele.ac.uk Abstract Context: Many researchers adopting systematic reviews (SRs) have also published Here is a more detailed description of the systematic review process. "Being comprehensive means that the search strategy attempts to uncover published and unpublished, easily accessible and harder to find reports of research studies. A systematic review follows these steps: 1. Beyond PICO: The SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence synthesis. A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. Booth, A. Overview of the nature, logic, diversity and process of undertaking systematic reviews as part of evidence informed decision making. Analytic framework 3. (2006). This module will take students through the process of doing a systematic review. PROSPERO accepts registrations for systematic reviews, rapid reviews and umbrella reviews. Pl:  Phenomenon of Interest 2. Check thesaurus terms in the relevant databases to identify other relevant keywords or subject terms to include in your search. These include: Rapid reviews; Reviews of reviews / Overviews / Umbrella reviews; Scoping reviews / systematic maps; Standard systematic reviews. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are not the same. Formulate the question - a clearly defined question will ensure that your research produces relevant results. Constructing and running database searches. It is important to have a record of decisions made in order to ensure reproducibility and minimize errors. There are different types of Systematic Reviews. Search the Grey Literature,  such as conference proceedings, theses, reports and unpublished literature. Retrieve the full-text of relevant studies, Examine the full-text to determine eligibility. In general, making recommendations for practice does not fall within the purview of systematic reviews. Published reviews also provide a starting point for identifying the studies. Appraisal and selection of studies. What makes a good systematic literature review? A large quantity of studies needs to be assessed at this stage of the review. Creating a protocol is an important part of creating a systematic review. Modifications may arise from a clearer understanding of the review question, and should not be made because of an awareness of the results of individual studies. Synthesise the data. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) flow diagram or similar chart can be useful to visualise and report the study selection process. Explicit criteria, based on the review’s scope and question (s), are used to include and exclude studies. Some key steps in searching for studies include: It’s important to note that the IOM recommends working “with a librarian or other information specialist trained in performing systematic reviews to plan the search strategy” (IOM Standard 3.1.1). Not all public health problems can be studied using blinded clinical trials, so most evidence for public health interventions is likely to be found in other kinds of studies or, on occasions, in qualitative studies. This process should involve at least two members of your group to help reduce bias. Write the protocol, which includes the inclusion/exclusion and eligibility criteria. Newly identified studies can change the conclusion of a review. Find journal articles - search for published primary studies in databases such as MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO. Qualitative Health Research, 22(10), 1435-1443. doi:10.1177/1049732312452938, Methley, A., Campbell, S., Chew-Graham, C., McNally, R., & Cheraghi-Sohi, S. (2014). If a systematic review answering your question has been conducted, or is being undertaken, you may need to amend or refine your question. "As well as drawing results together, synthesis should consider the strength of evidence, explore whether any observed effects are consistent across studies, and investigate possible reasons for any inconsistencies" (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2009, section 1.3.5). Explicit criteria, based on the review’s scope and question(s), are used to include and exclude studies. C:  Comparison Conducting hand searches of specialized journals. Searching relevant grey literature sources (e.g. This PRISMA flow diagram shows the number of studies/papers remaining at each stage. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 579. doi:10.1186/s12913-014-0579-0, What authors do by Jessica Kaufman, Cochrane Consumers & Communication review Group /CC BY-SA 4.0. More information can be found on the PRISMA website. The stages in conducting a review are: PROSPERO, from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at the University of York, is an international database of registered reviews in health and social care. A systematic review involves the following steps: 1. Expect a large number of results. Systematic review authors can make conclusions about the need for further research or draw conclusions about the usefulness of an intervention. Identify your research question. Should previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses be included in a systematic review? As a support in the review process there are the PRISMA Guidelines: "an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses." These elements of the review question, together with study design, will then be refined in order to determine the specific inclusion criteria that will be used when selecting studies for the review.”, "Not every review question will specify type of study design to be included". Beyond PICO: The SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence synthesis. Preparing a systematic review is time and resource consuming, and provides a snapshot of knowledge at the time of incorporation of data from studies identified during the latest search. (see box below). Handsearching is to overcome deficiencies in indexing or database coverage. Rapid reviews are best designed for: broader PICO questions, new or emerging research topics, updates of previous reviews, critical topics or to assess what is already known about a policy. See Levels of Evidence page for hierarchy of study design, P:    Population or Problem of interest This article aims to guide you on the different kinds of systematic review, the standard procedures to be followed, and the best approach to conducting and writing a systematic review. operate.In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Noongar The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram mapping essential information for transparent reporting of a systematic review. Systematic reviews synthesise relevant research around a particular question. ISO Guidance on the Systematic Review process – 9. launched. It's always necessary to check whether a systematic review answering your question has already been conducted or is under way. 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