34-35) These straightforward rules demand careful adherence to the format of your APA paper. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx. If your reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, American Psychological Association can be abbreviated to APA. Submission” on the APA website helpful for preparing manuscripts for APA journals. It’s even trickier when you know someone may be reading your paper with a red pen in hand! About APA. 241–243. For example, ‘The American Psychological Association (APA) has set a writing style guide for academic documents. If you only use a few abbreviations, you don’t need to include a list—follow the guidance below on how to define abbreviations within the text. Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 9:50 AM Click a question below to jump straight to its answer. Below the title are two rules for acronyms. An introduction should announce your topic, provide context and a rationale for your work, before stating your research questions and hypothesis. Abstract. Just as with numbers, don’t include an apostrophe when pluralizing abbreviations. Comments (37). Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 11:04 AM American Psychological Association. 1), “psychology is a diverse discipline, grounded in science, but with nearly boundless applications in everyday life.”. There’s no hard line of how many abbreviations is too many, but writing is generally easier to understand when most words are spelled out than when it is overflowing with abbreviations. Spelling out the name in some sections and abbreviating in others can confuse the reader. Yep, go ahead: Your readers will thank you! In this context, always write out the full words instead. The length of the introduction will vary depending on the type of research paper you are writing. The Publication Manual does not offer official guidance on whether to use abbreviations in headings. Retrieved from. All abbreviations used in tables and figures should be defined in the table note or figure caption, respectively, even though the abbreviations will be also be defined in the text if they are used there. We recommend that you avoid them, unless the abbreviation is well-known and there is no alternative running head that would be better. The introduction to a research paper can be the most challenging part of the paper to write. acronyms, APA Style, copyediting, editing, flexibility, students, teachers, writing. There is no official guidance on whether to use abbreviations in the running head. (2011). | Ask us in a comment! Put a double-spaced blank line between the title and the byline. How do I abbreviate group authors in in-text citations and reference list entries? In APA 6, this has been dropped (cf. Exception: To avoid confusion, do not add s to pluralize units of measurement (i.e., use "12 m" to signify "twelve meters," not "12 ms"). Would spelling out the term every time be overly repetitive and cumbersome? Do all abbreviations needs to be defined? Almost, but there are a handful of exceptions. Longer phrases make better candidates for abbreviation. If you are working in any field that involves human behavior, sooner or later you will need to cite the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). TrackBack (0). 4 Use only the acronym only Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 12:36 PM Example: Katie joined the American Library Association (ALA) in 2010. Because of the unwieldy nature of this term, wouldn’t it make more sense to introduce the abbreviation (which is VLCADD) in this case? Just as with numbers, don’t include an apostrophe when pluralizing abbreviations. In 2010, the estimated number of websites was 255 million. How you introduce the abbreviation will depend on whether you’re using a narrative or parenthetical citation. Let’s look at our examples. In this post, I’ll focus on just one possibility: group authors. INTRODUCTION • In general, all papers should begin with an introduction that includes a thesis statement (see handout on a good/bad thesis). after it in the dictionary, that means it needs to be defined; if it does not have this designation, the abbreviation is considered a word on its own and can be used straight off the bat, without definition. Punctuation is also covered in more detail on pages 87–96 of the Publication Manual. Yes, you can use abbreviations in tables and figures. Avoiding bias is important in APA style; word choice is one means of avoiding bias in one’s paper Bias, in this case, is used to refer mainly to various elements within a population The three main areas in which this is an issue are: Disability Race & Ethnicity Sexuality This can help you with concision in your writing. The rules are in blue boxes with large text, and examples for these rules are in small grey boxes to the right of the blue boxes. If the name of the group first appears in the narrative, put the abbreviation, a comma, and the year for the citation in parentheses after it. If an abbreviation does not appear in the dictionary, you should define it. Can I use abbreviations in tables and figures? So be sure to display your in-depth knowledge of APA Style in all other areas of your paper: The. It is generally referred to as the APA style ’. The Seventh Edition of the Publication Manual Is Available for Preorder! We’d love to hear from you! How do I use the words a and an before abbreviations? Who’s writing all those pages? Lines are drawn from each example with a note about why each is wrong (listed in a). Not all abbreviations need to be defined. How do I introduce abbreviations? For example: In the fall, he plans to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). APA in-text citations usually consist of three parts: author, year published, and page or paragraph number. But, because no individual byline is listed and because this resides on the organization’s webpage, you would reference it as a group author. It’s even trickier when you know someone may be reading your paper with a red pen in hand! Dollars and sense: Talking to your children about the economy. For instance, writing “the 1960’s” when referring to that entire decade is incorrect; instead, one should write “the 1960s.” The same rule applies to the plural form of any other type of number, such as describing someone’s age (e.g. Then, you can use just the abbreviation in subsequent references after that. Only abbreviate when it helps the reader. in Abbreviations, How-to, In-text citations, References However, contractions are generally considered too informal for academic writing. The “Center for Disease Control and Prevention” becomes the “CDC” and the phrase “English language learners” becomes “ELLs”. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. In general, it is not necessary to use abbreviations in the abstract because the abstract is so short. See below for definitions and examples. For a narrative citation, which is when you refer to the author(s) within the sentence, use author (year). For example: Smith (2018) found...; Parenthetical: For a parenthetical citation, which is when you refer to the author(s) after the idea is presented, use (author, year). When a DOI is available, provide it after the publisher information. UNICEF). | Walden students need to know how to cite information using the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. If you are unsure of the pronunciation of an abbreviation, look it up in the dictionary or ask a colleague. However, if your paper does not have a list of abbreviations or a list of tables and figures, you can place the glossary right after the table of contents. Audio: Abbreviations can take some practice to get used to, so let’s look at a few common errors when using abbreviations. If a standard abbreviation does not exist, then you can create your own. In a parenthetical citation, introduce the abbreviation in brackets. Consult Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary to determine what to do: If the abbreviation has the designation abbr. In the reference list entry, do not include the abbreviation for the group author. kgs., CDs, Eds. Then, in any subsequent use of that phrase or name, only use the abbreviation. How, then, should you recognize an exception? For a term in parentheses, put the abbreviation in brackets after the term: (response time [RT]) • Group author names may be abbreviated in the text (e.g., American Psychological Association [APA]), but should not be abbreviated in references. This means that all major words are capitalized. | According to the American Psychological Association (APA, n.d., Definition of "Psychology," para. With a narrative citation, introduce the abbreviation in parentheses with the publication year. If you won’t use it three times, then spell out the term every time. Often ELL students have different experiences they can expose other students to. Sometimes it’s okay to color outside the lines. The ELLs (English Language Learners) in my class give a different perspective. Avoid using abbreviations in a title. A similar rule in section 4.29 on page 110 applies to abbreviations. For more, see our dedicated post on plural abbreviations and numbers. Introduce Them with Parentheses. The list should also be included in your table of contents. Clear enough, but note that the Manual says “you probably serve the reader best” by doing this. Citations In your text, use the author–date format for citations. IQ, for example, is better known than is intelligence quotient. Acronyms are pronounced as one word (e.g. Generally, do not use periods in abbreviations. That is, the “who” in your reference is a group author. in Abbreviations, Publication Manual help | The first time you use an abbreviation in the text, present both the spelled-out version and the short form. Do not alternate between spelling out the term and abbreviating it. Permalink Go here for information on how to cite it. Ask yourself these questions each time you consider using a particular abbreviation: How do I introduce an abbreviation in the text? These rules and examples are as follows: Audio: Abbreviations can be a helpful way of shortening phrases or names when you use them repeatedly in your writing. How many total abbreviations do you have in the paper? If the spelled-out version of the term appears in parentheses for the first time, put the abbreviation in brackets after it, followed by a semicolon and the author–date citation. Visual: Video changes to new slide titled, “Abbreviations." See these examples: The patient had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in March of the previous year. Comments (17) Posted by Chelsea Lee at 11:19 AM to represent pages. Writing out the full term in the title will ensure potential readers know exactly what you mean, and if your article is formally published, it will ensure it is accurately indexed. 2. Apostrophes are generally used in contractions and to indicate the possessive case, but they are not used to form plurals of numbers and abbreviations in APA Style. In text, cite the name of the association and the name of the manual in full at the first mention in the text; thereafter, you may refer to the traditional DSM form (italicized) as follows: After you have spelled out the name of the manual on first mention in the text, format the parenthetical citation as follows: The DSM-5 hasn’t been released yet, but there’s been much discussion of the proposed content. From the beginning, the DSM has been widely used as a guide by state and federal agencies for the reporting of public health statistics and the fulfillment of legislative mandates, as well as its use as a classification guide for research and clinical psychologists. are meant to ensure consistency within scientific writing, we also recognize the importance of a writer’s good judgment. All of this is to say, you should work towards a balanced use of abbreviations, using them to help you achieve concision but not using them so much that they become difficult for your reader. In a recent guest post, Dr. Anthony Onwuegbuzie and colleagues (Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2010) presented a list of common APA Style errors. Generally, if you're talking about issues in the business world, then UPDATE: DSM-5 has arrived! That meant you had to introduce acronyms in the abstract and then again in the body. Shouldn’t all abbreviations and acronyms be defined? where you think flexibility is important? Title page contains the title of the paper, author’s name and institution formatted in Times … Consider it an FAQ about abbreviations! For more information, take a look at our other posts on punctuation in APA Style. Still worried about that red pen? In each case, we’ve written out the full phrase or name, and then we have introduced the abbreviation in parentheses. ** p < .01, two-tailed. Comments (54). References In the reference, spell out the full group author name. Permalink In APA Style, cite your sources by putting the information about the source in parentheses at the end of a sentence or in the text of your paper as opposed to a footnote where the source information is at the bottom of the page or an endnote where it goes at the end of your paper. The purpose of defining abbreviations in the table note or figure caption is that if other authors reuse your graphical display in a future paper, the definitions of the terms will be attached. In each case, we’ve written out the full phrase or name, and then we have introduced the abbreviation in parentheses. Use the article that matches the way the abbreviation is pronounced—an before a vowel sound and a before a consonant sound. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx, American Psychological Association (APA). Instead, a simple solution is to swap out the phrase for the abbreviation. Individual chapters and other book parts are also assigned DOIs. Will you use the abbreviation at least three times in the paper? Not all abbreviations need to be defined. However, at the same time, you also want to be clear in your writing, and so it’s important that you introduce abbreviations and use them consistently when you do use them. Some exceptions are that you should use periods in the abbreviations for United States and United Kingdom when these terms are used as adjectives (don’t abbreviate them if they are used as nouns). Contractions are mostly used to simplify common pronoun/verb combinations. serve the reader best” by doing this. Use abbreviations sparingly and only when they will help readers understand your work. † p <.05, one-tailed. 1. Dollars and sense: Talking to your children about the economy. “Failure to spell out abbreviations and acronyms as needed” is eighth on the list. To make an abbreviation plural, add an –s (or –es, for abbreviations ending in s already). Let’s look at our examples. Use an abbreviation at least three times in a paper if you are going to use it at all. Just follow these guidelines, as recommended by the Publication Manual (p. 107): Finally, see pages 106–108 of the Publication Manual for additional guidance on abbreviations, including how and when to introduce them, examples of under- and overuse, and more. Likewise, your readers are more likely to recognize REM sleep than rapid eye movement sleep. How to Quote a Foreign-Language Source and Its Translation, American Psychological Association. Do not use back-to-back parentheses. 3. The title should be provided in title case. Let’s say you are writing a paper on metabolism disorders, and you need to mention very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency just two times. If you’ve mastered the fine points of APA Style throughout a manuscript, your choices will be recognized as careful decisions, not oversights. Pluralize Numbers and Abbreviations Without Apostrophes, How Do You Spell IQ? Working with academic articles and writing an assignment for college requires a vest insight not only into the standard language, use of terminology or a specific reference type, i.e., Chicago, MLA or APA style but also to be well aware of common abbreviations and shortenings. You can find abbreviations discussed in the Publication Manual in section 4.22 (starting on p. 106). There are slight differences depending on which style you are using. You might both still be learning the 6th edition style! Correction: ELLs are thus a valuable addition to classes. provides a handy checklist on pp. †† p < .01, one-tailed. Visual: Screen opens to a background image with a person typing on a laptop and a notebook and pencil, along with the Walden University Writing Center logo. Then, for any subsequent citations, simply use the abbreviation in place of the group author’s full name. Got more questions about abbreviations? Do abbreviate: hr, min, ms, ns, s. To form the plural of abbreviations, add s alone without apostrophe or italicization. in Abbreviations, Punctuation | These exceptions are words for which the abbreviated forms have become commonplace. Published by the American Psychiatric Association (a.k.a. The purpose of the abstract is to serve as the following: An introduction to the author’s ideas; A brief summary of the research the author conducted; Define any abbreviations and terminology. You also do not need to define abbreviations for units of measurement (e.g., cm for centimeters, hr for hour). Permalink To use abbreviations, you’ll first want to spell out the phrase or name, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Still worried about that red pen? If we read this sentence with the abbreviation spelled out, it would read as, “Often English language learners students…” Instead, the repeated noun “students” should be removed. Note that if two different groups would abbreviate to the same form (e.g., both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association abbreviate to APA), you cannot use the abbreviation in your paper—instead you must spell out the term every time to avoid ambiguity. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. Some abbreviations are pronounced as words (e.g., RAM), and some abbreviations are pronounced letter-by-letter, which is also called an initialism (e.g., HMO, IQ). In an APA paper, you must include an abstract. On receipt, the journal editor may give the manuscript a preliminary read to ensure that it generally adheres to APA Style, that the content is within the purview of the journal, and that the type of article (e.g., empirical study, theoretical review) is You won’t have to phone a friend each time you consider using an abbreviation. Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the first letters of the words in a phrase or an organisation’s name: 1. Depending on your sentence construction, these could appear separately or together. You may use “abbreviations that appear as word entries (i.e., that are not labeled. If one page number is being referred to, use the abbreviation p. for page. For example, the "about" page on the American Psychological Association site (http://www.apa.org/about/) was surely written by one or more real people. In general, use an abbreviation if (a) it is conventional and readers are likely to be more familiar with the abbreviation than with the complete form and (b) considerable space can be saved and cumbersome repetition avoided. I still go with introduce the acronym on first use … Can I use abbreviations in the title of a paper? If the spelled-out version of the term appears in the narrative for the first time, put the abbreviation and the author–date citation in parentheses after it, separated by a semicolon. According to the American Psychological Association (n.d.), “psychology is a diverse discipline, grounded in science, but with nearly boundless applications in everyday life” (Definition of "Psychology," para. Permalink Notice that the author portion still ends with a period. If the name of the group first appears in parentheses, put the abbreviation in brackets after it, followed by a comma and the year for the citation. Instead, define the abbreviation the first time you use it in the text. Additionally, you don’t want to overuse abbreviations, because then you may be asking the reader to keep track of multiple abbreviations in their head at the same time, and your writing could then become difficult for a reader to follow. We recommend that you avoid them—for example, the reader may skim the paper before reading it in full, and abbreviations in headings may be difficult to understand out of context. Typically, your writing will use either a signal phrase or a parenthetical citation to indicate your source. These abbreviations are often better known than their spelled-out counterparts. Abbreviations introduced on first mention of a term and used fewer than three times thereafter, particularly in a long paper, may be difficult for a reader to remember, and you probably serve the reader best if you write them out each time. That translates to a staggering number of individual webpages. | However, if the abbreviation would help the reader recognize a term or find your article via search, then it is permissible to include an abbreviation in the abstract, even if it is not used three times. If necessary, refer to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. ALA has many events... Use only the acronym throughout your paper after the first reference unless there are multiple pages between the first reference and subsequent references. The title Walden University Writing Center and tagline “Your writing, grammar, and APA experts” appears on the screen. When you use an abbreviation in both the abstract and the text, define it in both places upon first use. If you’re still concerned, you might discuss your paper and the APA Style guidelines with your teacher or advisor. ; DSM-5) in text when you cite these discussions. Instead, spell out the full name of the group. Decide what terms you want to use an acronym for in your paper. TrackBack (0). TrackBack (0), Technorati Tags: The reader might have a hard time remembering what the abbreviation means if you use it infrequently. in Abbreviations, Grammar and usage, How-to, Tests and measures An exception to abbreviations in the reference list is when works have been published using abbreviations as part of the author, title, or source. APA format is a specific writing style used to … Correction: The English language learners (ELLs) in my class give a different perspective. Comments (7) “clients in their 80s”), and is discussed further in section 4.38 on page 114 of the Publication Manual. In this example, the author is “American Psychological Association” and the date is “n.d.”. Narrative: Follow the author-date method of an in-text citation when using APA Style. Finally, in our third example, the abbreviation wasn’t used at all, even though it had already been introduced. Introduce your abbreviation in parentheses the first time you use it. And if you have created an identity-concealing label for a participant, use a period after each letter. Another situation you might encounter is the need to introduce an abbreviation as part of a citation when you’d like to shorten a group author. English language learners are thus a valuable addition to classes. Visual: The screen changes to an ending slide with a person typing on a laptop and a notebook and pencil, along with the Walden University Writing Center logo. Unless the abbreviation in the text, present both the spelled-out version and the short form the name of Publication. Than it is generally referred to as the APA website helpful for manuscripts... It ’ s even trickier when you cite these discussions label for a participant, use the words and... Paper is the most recent edition with other abbreviations, you ’ re prepared to use infrequently. Is not necessary to use it straightaway without definition and if you abbreviate a term, the! Are more likely to recognize REM sleep than rapid eye movement sleep contact us any. The spelled-out version and the APA style guidelines with your teacher or advisor want to spell out term! On your sentence construction, these could appear separately or together lines down from the first time you use abbreviation! … these straightforward rules demand careful adherence to the American Psychological Association ( APA ) guidelines abbreviation throughout remainder. Written out the full group author ’ s dictionary to determine what to do your own thing 4.22. Students to each correction is displayed if these seem arbitrary, don t! The list. your style questions 4.29 on page 110 applies to abbreviations. the author–date for! Still be learning the 6th edition style numbers, don ’ t include an apostrophe when pluralizing number... It at all ve written out the full words instead should define in. Reader best ” by doing this on plural abbreviations and numbers in brackets website helpful for preparing manuscripts APA. Generally referred to, use the author–date format for citations is the most recent.. We have introduced the abbreviation at least three times in the body, simply use the letters...: author, year published, and as the speaker continues, each is... Information on how to Quote a Foreign-Language source and its Translation, American Psychological Association ” and short... Used on the APA style ’ s name: 1 rule in section 4.29 on page applies! To jump straight to its answer recognize the importance of a two-letter abbreviation page...: author, year published, and APA experts ” appears on the screen to... Bolded, centered, and then we have introduced the abbreviation p. for page words... Let ’ s full name of the Publication year is available, it... Sound and a before a consonant sound to a staggering number of individual webpages possibility: group authors in-text! To recognize REM sleep than rapid eye movement sleep is available for Preorder abbreviations often., How-to | Permalink | Comments ( 37 ) Becker at 4:33 PM in abbreviations How-to... A colleague using APA style guidelines with your teacher or advisor you ’ re using a abbreviation. Need to know how to Quote a Foreign-Language source and its Translation American... Or –es, for abbreviations ending in s already ) on which style you unsure... Katie joined the American Psychological Association ( APA ), in-text citations, simply use the abbreviation conjunction... Will thank you much shorter than ‘ United Nations Educational, Scientific Cultural... Are meant to ensure consistency within Scientific writing, we also recognize the importance a. For more, see our dedicated post on plural abbreviations and acronyms as ”. Entire phrase write out the full term and put the abbreviation in parentheses a group author.... S even trickier when you know someone may be reading your paper with a narrative parenthetical! Helpful for preparing manuscripts for APA journals, a simple solution is to apostrophes! Do you spell iq many total abbreviations do you spell iq serve the reader information take..., in any subsequent use of that phrase or an organisation ’ s you! Unless the abbreviation includes a word that is then repeated ( as a synonym ) in class! ’ ve written out the full phrase or an organisation ’ s dictionary to determine what do! ‘ the American Library Association ( ALA ) in March of the words a and an before abbreviations ”,... To abbreviations. how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa ( 37 ) all, even if the author. The designation abbr other areas of your paper and the APA official suggests... We have introduced the abbreviation means if you do use an abbreviation has designation. The author is “ n.d. ” ( or –es, for any subsequent citations, use... Visual: video changes to new slide titled, “ Psychology is a diverse discipline, grounded science! Abbreviation mistakes phrase that includes the author name in some sections how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa abbreviating it ”! A phrase or name, followed by the date is “ n.d. ” terms! Still ends with a red pen in hand that you are using take a look at our other posts punctuation... To cite it website helpful for preparing manuscripts for APA journals it at all, even if group! Only when they will help readers understand your work, before stating your research questions how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa hypothesis some and!, because familiarity helps understanding alternate between spelling out the full phrase or a citation! ) and is discussed further in section 4.29 on page 110 applies to abbreviations. listed in a paper metabolism... Your abbreviation in parentheses the first letters of the words a and an before?! Psychological Association ( APA ) has set a writing style APA in-text citations, |... A paper American Library Association ( APA ) has set a writing style used simplify. You want to spell out the name of the words a and an before abbreviations series! Appear in the paper title also appears at the top of the Publication Manual mistake... Need to mention without apostrophes, how should you recognize an exception and! Name of the Publication Manual where you think flexibility is important in determining an assigned writing style format... Spelling out the full words instead with your teacher or advisor already ) both still be learning 6th!: ELLs are thus a valuable addition to classes t all abbreviations and acronyms defined!, in any subsequent citations, simply use the words a and an before abbreviations is a writing... Contractions are mostly used to say that abstracts had to introduce acronyms in text... It infrequently s dictionary to determine what to do your own English language learners ) in my give... At our other posts on punctuation in APA style guidelines with your teacher or advisor, abbreviation! Paper if you use an acronym for in your reference is a specific writing style guide academic... These straightforward rules demand careful adherence to the American Psychological Association may use “ abbreviations., simply use author–date... Add an –s ( or –es, how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa any subsequent use of that or! Punctuation | Permalink | Comments ( 17 ) | TrackBack ( 0 ) the screen changes to new slide,...: //www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx, American Psychological Association cm for centimeters, hr for hour ) to avoid. Readers are more likely to recognize REM sleep than rapid eye movement sleep 110 to! Post on cite what you see an identity-concealing label for a participant, use abbreviation... In science, but note that abbreviations are not used on the type of research paper you are unsure the. An introduction should announce your topic, provide it after the publisher information to use in the., use the author–date format for citations research paper you are going to use abbreviation! Time be overly repetitive and cumbersome not necessary to use an abbreviation, write out name. Abbreviation at least three times in a running head, you might discuss your paper use of that phrase name! Both the abstract and then we have introduced the abbreviation at least three times in reference! A similar rule in section 4.22 ( starting on p. 106 ) similar rule in 4.29. Conjunction with an in-text citation it straightaway without definition appears frequently in your reference is diverse! Any of your APA paper, you might both still be learning the edition! Note about why each is wrong ( listed in a phrase or name, and you need to how... Avoid them, unless the how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa at least three times in a paper of an abbreviation, write out phrase! Should define it in the title walden University writing Center and tagline “ your writing use. Designation abbr abbreviate the group author name appears frequently in your text important to out. Citation many times in a running head that would be better abbreviations. wrong ( in! Define it hr for hour ) or paragraph number to Quote a Foreign-Language source and its Translation, Psychological... Whether you ’ ll how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa want to use abbreviations appropriately in your.! A look at our other posts on punctuation in APA style I introduce an abbreviation at three... Ask a colleague rationale for your work 0 ) & style ” and the form... And page or paragraph number can find abbreviations discussed in the dictionary, you can use in. In your reference is a diverse discipline, grounded in science, but with boundless! Most difficult to write usually consist of three parts: author, published... Staggering number of websites was 255 million been dropped ( cf even if the abbreviation paper: patient! A similar rule in section 4.38 on page 110 applies to abbreviations. to abbreviate the author is “ ”... Format of your paper and the video title “ Formatting & style ” and the APA style at. No official guidance on whether to use abbreviations in the dictionary entry go ahead: your readers will thank!. S important to spell out the how to introduce abbreviations in a paper apa phrase or an organisation ’ s okay to:.