Once you know what type a fault is, you can predict what can happen there during an earthquake. plate boundaries under the North and South Islands representing the North Island subduction zone and the South Island Alpine Fault. What a Normal Fault Looks Like. New Zealand, Tel +64 3 479 7519 The faultline is estimated to move horizontally up to 10m at a time during an earthquake. The Alpine Fault is located on the South Island of New Zealand. Normal faults are the result of extension when tectonic plates move away from each other. Another example of a transform boundary on land is the Alpine Fault of New Zealand. The Marlborough Fault System is a series of subparallel strike-slip faults which run northeast-southwest. It occurs between the Pacific Plate... See full answer below. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. It was first suggested by John Tuzo Wilson, a Canadian geophysicist, in 1965. The Alpine Fault also ruptures, which leads to seismic activity as well as considerable horizontal movement, up to 30 m every 1000 years. The type of plate boundary at the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary. Active crustal deformation is generally concentrated within plate boundary zones. 1. T The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. Most earthquakes strike less than 50 miles (80 kilometers) below the Earth’s surface. A smaller number of transform faults cut continental lithosphere. The fracture region that makes up a transform plate boundary is known as the transform fault. c) Very little stress builds up along the plates. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The Alpine Fault occurs at a transform boundary. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. It forms a transform boundary, so yes. This compressional movement is causing the Southern Alps to be uplifted at a rate of approximately 7 millimetres per year forming a high elongate mountain range parallel to the Alpine Fault. The area of volcanic activity is referred to as the Taupo Volcanic Zone (see map above). Langridge said researchers in California and New Zealand have a long history of earthquake science collaboration and are learning from each other about the treatment of active faults and fault segmentation for seismic hazard models. Although the New Zealand plate boundary is often described as simply two subduction zones linked by the transpressive Alpine Fault, in actuality the present is merely a snapshot view of an ongoing and complex evolution from convergence to subduction. As the Pacific Plate is subducted below North Island, the part of the Australian Plate that makes up the central North Island is stretched and has, over many millions of years, become thinner than normal crust. English:Map of the Marlborough Fault System, the set of dextral strike-slip faults that accommodates the switch from the Alpine Fault to the Kermadec Trench along the plate boundary through New Zealand. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. I’ve analyzed quartz grain size data from ~250 rocks spanning 170 km of the fault. Conversely, in the southwest of South Island where the Australian Plate is being subducted below the Pacific Plate, the deeper earthquakes occur on the southeast edge of the seismic zone where the Benioff zone dips steeply to the southeast. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. To the northeast of New Zealand, and underneath North Island, the Pacific Plate is moving towards, and being subducted below the Australian Plate. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Elsevier. Here, the main part of South Island is being thrust over the Australian Plate on a bearing of about 250 degrees. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. The Alpine Fault is a geological right-lateral strike-slip fault. New Zealand lies at the edge of both the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Transform Plate Boundaries - Transform Fault. Teachers / Educators: Create FREE classroom games with your questions like the ones on this site. Students can play FREE, fun and interactive games to help prepare for exams, tests, and quizzes. Date 2009. Water released from the Pacific Plate deep under North Island combines with the hot rock of the Australian Plate at about 100km depth and causes a small amount of that rock to melt. Relative movement across the Marlborough Fault System is dextral or right-lateral. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. There is some uplift along it, and that has led to the development of the Southern Alps in the south island of New Zealand. Publisher. Another example of a transform boundary on land is the Alpine Fault of New Zealand. d) Most faults occur in middle of plates. The subduction zone in the north is linked to the subduction zone in the south by a series of very large faults that run through Marlborough (Marlborough Fault System) and down the west coast of South Island (Alpine Fault). Another major strike-slip fault that cuts across land is the Alpine fault in New Zealand that cuts across the south island. The Alpine Fault is sometimes compared with California's San Andreas Fault, being another fast-moving strike slip fault near a plate boundary. © Department of Geology The Alpine Fault marks a transform boundary between the two plates, and further south the Indo-Australian Plate subducts under the Pacific Plate forming the Puysegur Trench. The Alpine Fault is considered to be a visible, “on-land” boundary of the two constituent plates, and also marks the transition from a transform to convergent boundary. New Zealand’s Alpine Fault is a seismically active, “crust-busting” plate boundary fault. At this location, two plates are sliding past each other slowly over time. Deep earthquakes under North Island form a well defined band (seismic zone) running northeast from Marlborough through White Island. The southern part of Zealandia, which is to the east of this boundary, is the plate's largest block of continental crust. That is, the slip … Public domain Photo credit Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=67355. click "search options" again to close the pull down or refresh the page, d) both convergent and divergent boundaries. At the Alpine Fault, the two plates are locked, but in a large earthquake they grind past and into each other, pushing up the Southern Alps. 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